Culture is not a Thing, and other Antidotes to the Ravages of Reification

Milton J. Bennet, Ph.D.

from Knowledge Bite – SIETAR España Newsletter No. 01/2019

We should not be asking what things really are and how to descrive them accurately; rather, we should be asking how to observe and describe things appropriately for our purpose. >> read more

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Intercultural Competence for Global Leadership

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D. (2016)

This reading is an edited compilation of two articles by Milton J. Bennett: “Developing Intercultural Competence for Global Managers” in Reineke, Rolf- Dieter (Editor) (June, 2001) Interkulturelles Managment. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag, ISBN: 3-409-11794-6 and “An Intercultural Mindset and Skillset for Global Leadership” from Conference Proceedings of Leadership Without Borders: Developing Global Leaders. Adelphi, MD: National leadership Institute and the Center for Creative Leadership, University of Maryland University College, 2001. Revised 2016, >> read more

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The Value of Cultural Diversity: Rhetoric and Reality

Reflections on the End of Relativism

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D. ,

The Value of Cultural Diversity: Rhetoric and Reality, Meeting Report on Fellows Day, International Academy of Intercultural Research 9th Biennial Congress, Bergen, Norway, 2016

This report originally summarized the presentation and discussion that occurred during the Fellows Day session of the 9th Biennial Congress of the International Academy of Intercultural Research held in Bergen, Norway June 28, 2015. Because it was a report and not an original research article, descriptions of concepts are intentionally truncated and referencing is restricted to establishing context more than linking to other contemporary treatments of the issue. >> read more

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A Constructivist Epistemology of Hate

Milton J. Bennett Ph.D.

from

The Psychology Of Hate Crimes As Domestic Terrorism: US And Global Issue

Volume One: Theoretical, Lega Cultural Factors, Edward Dunbar, Amalio Blanco, and Desirée A. Crèvecoeur-MacPhail, Editors Praeger (2016)

All organisms behave, but, as far as we know, only humans also explain behavior. Organisms routinely destroy other organisms for various reasons, but only humans ask why. One answer is “hatred.” Clearly it is not necessary to hate another organism in order to destroy it, but the idea is commonly invoked as an explanation for human violence. >> read more

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Intercultural Consciousness and the Construction of Citizenship

Milton J. Bennett Ph.D.

Presentation for CFC/FSEA Conference, The Formation of Sustainable Citizenship, Monte Carasso, Switzerland February 5, 2015.

The issue of citizenship for our time is how to reconcile unity and diversity. By “unity,” I mean the commonality of purpose that allows groups to compete and survive in their environments. By “diversity,” I mean the variety of ways that human beings have devised to attain that commonality of purpose. >> read more

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Ethnocentrism/Xenophobia

Bennett, M. (2013). Entry in C. Cortes (Ed) Multicultural America: A multimedia encyclopedia. New York: Sage

The term “ethnocentrism” was coined by William Graham Sumner in reference to the view that one’s own group is the center of everything, with others judged in terms of the familiar standards of that group >> read more

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Intercultural Communication

Bennett, M. (2013). Entry in C. Cortes (Ed) Multicultural America: A multimedia encyclopedia. New York: Sage

Intercultural communication is the study and practice of communication across cultural contexts. It applies equally to domestic cultural differences such as ethnicity and gender and to international differences such as those associated with nationality or world region. >> read more

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Stereotypes/Generalizations

Bennett, M. (2013). Entry in C. Cortes (Ed) Multicultural America: A multimedia encyclopedia. New York: Sage

A cultural generalization is a statement about a group of people. For instance, saying that US Americans tend to be more individualistic compared to many other cultural groups is an accurate generalization about that group. A cultural generalization may become a stereotype if it is definitively applied to individual members of the group. For instance, it would be stereotyping a particular person to assume that he or she must be individualistic by virtue of being a US American. >> read more

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Constructivism, Intercultural

Bennett, M. (2013). Entry in C. Cortes (Ed) Multicultural America: A multimedia encyclopedia. New York: Sage

Constructivism is an epistemological position commonly found in communication theory, cultural
anthropology, developmental psychology, and learning theory. It holds that knowledge and experience
of the world is constructed, not discovered. >> read more

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Intercultural learning of hosting families

Ida Castiglioni, Ph.D.

Castiglioni, Ida (2012). Intercultural learning of hosting families. Intercultura 65, 2012.

Research sponsored by Fondazione Intercultura and reported at the Second Forum of Intercultural Learning and Exchange, 26-29 October 2011, Colle di Val d’Elsa, Italia >> read more

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Milton Bennett Talks about the DMIS

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

Sietar Europa Newsletter 8 (2011)

Two interviews with Milton J. Bennett: “How he created the DMIS” and “Cultural Identity and Integration”. >> read more

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What All Interculturalists Need to Know: Why They are Not Cross-Cultural Psychologists, Anthropologists, or Internationalists

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

Presentation at the annual meeting of Sietar Italia, Milan, February 2011

Levels of Analysis of Culture

  • Institutional-level analysis: Political Science, Economics, International Studies
  • Group-level analysis: Social Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Intercultural Communication
  • Individual-level analysis: Psychology, Cross-cultural Psychology
  • Combined Institutional and Individual analysis: Critical Theory (Cultural Studies).

 >> read more

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Intercultural Ethics: A Constructivist Approach

Richard Evanoff

This article originally appeared in the Journal of Intercultural Communication 9:89-102 (2006), published by the Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research (SIETAR)–Japan. Copyright © 2011 Richard Evanoff.

Abstract: While a considerable amount of research in the field of intercultural communication has been devoted to empirical and theoretical studies on cultural differences, comparatively little work has been devoted to normative studies which consider how problems which arise because of cultural differences might be resolved (see, however, Evanoff 2004 for a bibliography of recent publications in this area). >> read more

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A Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D. , 2011

Description of the various stages of the DMIS and Developing competence for every stage >> read more

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Forum on Intercultural learning and exchange

Milton J. Bennet, Ph. D.

Fondazione Intercultura Newsletter, 2010

Like the MBMconference, FILE included research at both the secondary and highe reducation levels. Specifically, the focus of the conference was on 1) the definition and measurement of intercultural competence, and 2) the narration of re-entry experience by returning exchange students. >> read more

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Creating an Interculturally Competent Campus to Educate Global Citizens

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

(2010) Paper presented to the 7th International Congress on Higher Education, The University for a Better World, Feb. 10, 2010, Havana, Cuba

Abstract

Liberal arts education has traditionally taken the responsibility of preparing students to be intellectually competent and ethical citizens of society. But now society has evolved into “global villages” where people of different national and ethnic heritage increasingly live side by side in real and virtual environments. >> read more

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A Short Conceptual History of Intercultural Learning in Study Abroad

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

(2010) In W. Hoffa & S. Depaul (Eds) A history of U.S. study abroad: 1965-present. Special publication of Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, pp. 419-449

In 1967 I was a bus chaperone for a group of international AFSi students, which involved three weeks of stops each evening at homes across the country and non-stop stories each day about their experiences in the US the previous year >> read more

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Social Justice and Intercultural Development

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

(2007) Original draft: Social justice and intercultural development: New views on campus intergroup relations, published as Developing intercultural sensitivity: A model to improve intergroup relations on campus. Leadership Exchange Magazine, Fall 2007. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators >> read more

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Paradigmatic Assumptions of Intercultural Communications

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D. (2005)

Intercultural relations is an unusual academic specialty among the social sciences. This is in part because it specifies a relatively specific domain as its focus. >> read more

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Assunti paradigmatici della comunicazione interculturale

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D. (2005)

Versione italiana di Ida Castiglioni, Ph.D.

Le relazioni interculturali rappresentano una prospettiva accademica inusuale nelle scienze sociali. Ciò è dovuto in parte al fatto che esse si concentrano su un campo relativamente specifico. >> read more

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Integration in Intercultural Ethics

Richard Evanoff

School of International Politics, Economics, and Business, Aoyama Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366, Japan (2005)

Abstract: Normative theories of the ethical stances sojourners should adopt with respect to their host cultures typically encourage sojourners to

Becoming Interculturally Competent

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

In J.S. Wurzel (Ed.) Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education. Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation (2004)

After years of observing all kinds of people dealing (or not) with cross-cultural situations, I decided to try to make sense of what was happening to them. I wanted to explain why some people seemed to get a lot better at communicating across cultural boundaries while other people didn’t improve at all, and I thought that if I were able to explain why this happened, trainers and educators could do a better job of preparing people for cross-cultural encounters. >>read more

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References on Constructivism and Development

Bibliography from Bennett, M. J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent . In J.S. Wurzel (Ed.) Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education. Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation. >> read more

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Embodied Ethnocentrism And The Feeling Of Culture

A Key to Training for Intercultural Competence

Ida Castiglioni Ph.D., Milton J. Bennett Ph.D. (2003)


We want to speak of the feeling of one’s own culture and the feeling for other cultures. This subject is important to interculturalists because much of their work concerns ethnocentrism, and the most fundamental fact of ethnocentrism is that things simply “feel right” in one’s own culture. >> read more

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Introduzione all’edizione italiana del libro “Principi di comunicazione interculturale”

Ida Castiglioni, Introduzione all’edizione italiana del libro “Principi di comunicazione interculturale” a cura di Milton Bennett, Franco Angeli 2002

>> read more

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Turning Cross-Cultural Contact into Intercultural Learning

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

Towards a developmental model of intercultural sensitivity” (1993) in R. Michael Paige, ed. Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

This topic addresses the central topic of the internationalization of higher education in the current international economic context facing neoliberal globalization>> read more

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Analysis of Learner Characteristics implied by the Perry Scheme

Based on Models of Intellectual and Ethical Development
Willaim G. Perry, Jr. and Belenky, et al. (Women’s Ways of Knowing)

Analysis of the learner characteristics of students implied by the Perry Scheme >> read more

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Examples of Intellectual Development Cues

Based on Models of Intellectual and Ethical Development
Willaim G. Perry, Jr. and Belenky, et al. (Women’s Ways of Knowing)

and Rating cues developed by L. Lee Knefelkamp , William S. Moore, Kathe Taylor, Peggy Fitch

>> read more

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Chapters on DMIS

Milton J. Bennett, Ph.D.

Chapters authored totally or in part by Milton J. Bennett on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (excluding applications to the Intercultural Development Inventory) >> read more

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The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (by author)

Readings and Research Categorized by Author. >> read more

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The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (by topic)

Readings and Research Categorized by Topic. >> read more

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